The term " information " has many meanings, from everyday usage to technical interpretation. In general, the concept of IT application is tied to knowledge gained from research, experience or instruction. Technologyon the other hand, refers to the application of knowledge to practical purposes of life, or to change and manipulate the environment. Technologies include the use of materials, tools, techniques and energy sources to make life easier or more pleasant and work more productive. Technology begins to influence human efforts as soon as people start using tools. Technology also began to be used to manage information as the amount and diversity of information increased to such an extent that the human brain was unable to efficiently store or process it.
The term Information Technology (IT) was coined by Jim Domsic in Michigan in November 1981. Domsic coined the term to modernize the outdated phrase " data processing.“. Information technology is a general term describing any technology that helps produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and / or disseminate information. Perhaps, when talking about Information Technology in general, it should be noted that computer use and related information. “Information Technology” is defined by the American Information Technology Association (ITAA), which means “researching, designing, developing, implementing, supporting or managing computer-based information systems. especially the software applications and computer hardware. " Information technology means the use of computers and computer software to safely convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information.
Covering the computer industries and information systems, Information Technology applications are the ability to electronically enter, process, store, export, transmit and receive data and information, including text and maps. graphics, audio and video, as well as the ability to control machines of all types of electronics. Information Technology applications include computers, networks, satellite communications, robotics, video, text, cable TV, email ("e-mail"), electronic games and office equipment. moving. The information industry includes all organizations related to computers, communications and electronics, including hardware, software and services. Completion of the Information Technology application leads to rapid and portability of information, as well as improved reliability and integrity of processed information.
Another related term, Information Technology and Communications(ICT) is sometimes used to give priority to the application of Information Technology, especially in the fields of education and administration. In common usage, it is often thought that ICT is synonymous with IT; In fact, ICT includes any medium to record information, technology to transmit information; and voice and / or visual communication technology. It covers a wide variety of computer hardware (PCs, servers, mainframes, network storage), rapidly growing personal hardware market (mobile phones, personal devices, MP3 players), application software (from smallest developer spreadsheet to online software services); and necessary hardware and software to operate the communication network. Therefore, ICT makes it clearer that technologies such as broadcasting and wireless mobile telecommunications are included in the definition.
History of Information Technology
The basic concept of Information Technology applications can be traced back to the military and industrial alliances during World War II for the development of electronics, computers and information theory. After the 1940s, the military remained the primary source of research and development funding for the expansion of automation to replace human power with machines.
Since the 1950s, four generations of computers have been developed. Each generation reflects a change to the hardware that reduces size but increases the ability to control the operation of the computer. The first generation used a vacuum tube, the second transistor was used, the third used an integrated circuit, and the fourth used an integrated circuit on a computer chip. Advances in artificial intelligence will reduce the need for complex programming that will characterize the fifth generation of computers, still in beta.
The first commercial computer was the UNIVAC I, developed by John Eckert and John W. Mauchly in 1951. It was used by the Census Bureau to predict the outcome of the 1952. presidential election. In 25 In the following year, mainframe computers were used in large corporations to compute and manipulate large amounts of information stored in databases. Supercomputers are used in science and engineering, to design aircraft and nuclear reactors, and to predict weather patterns around the world. Mini computers appeared in the early 1980s in small businesses, manufacturing plants and factories.
In 1975, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed the computer. The microcomputer market increased significantly when IBM introduced its first personal computer in the fall of 1981. Due to drastic improvements in computer manufacturing and components, today's personal computers make Get more work than the biggest computers of the mid-1960s, which cost about a thousandth. .
Every day, people use computers in new ways. Computers and other electronic devices are becoming increasingly affordable. They continue to become more powerful and easy to use information processing tools. Humans continually rely on IT-enabled devices to perform simple tasks like memorizing phone numbers to as complex as flying a fighter plane. Information technology has applications in almost every aspect of our lives. Some of the important things are:
Application of information technology - Science and Technology :
Scientific progress in the IT community in areas such as biotechnology is almost entirely dependent on the application of information technology and other microprocessor-controlled devices. Applying information technology such as supercomputers, meteorologists predict future weather by using a combination of observations of weather conditions from multiple sources, mathematical representation of atmospheric activity and geographic data. Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs have resulted in products being improved in many areas, especially when designs have The trend is very detailed. Information technology applications enable engineers to analyze the designs of complex structures such as power plants and space stations.
Application of information technology - Business & Trade :
One of the first and greatest applications for computers was the application of information technology to the keeping and management of business and financial records. Most large companies keep the employment records of all their workers in a large database managed by computer programs. Similar programs and databases are used in business functions such as payments to customers; Keep track of the payments received and the payments to be made; and tracking the supplies needed and items produced, stored, shipped, and sold. In fact, all IT companies that need to do business are involved in the use of computers and Information Technology. Almost all financial transactions in the world are done electronically.
On a smaller scale, many businesses have applied information technology to replace cash registers with terminals at point of sale (POS). These POS terminals not only print sales invoices for customers, but also send information to computer databases as each item is sold to maintain inventory and items to be ordered. Computers are also becoming very important in modern factories. Computer-controlled robots are currently doing hot, heavy, or dangerous jobs. Robots are also used to do frequently repetitive jobs, where boredom or fatigue can lead to poor quality of work.
With today's complex hardware, software, and communications technologies, it is often difficult to classify a system as belonging to a particular application program. Organizations increasingly consolidate their information needs into a single, integrated information system. Information Management System (MIS), headed by the Chief Information Officer (CIO), is a whole new branch of business management.
Application of information technology - Education :
The advent of Information Technology has changed the meaning of the term "literacy", in which computer skills are almost as important as basic knowledge in many cases. Computer education is an essential course at the elementary level in most schools around the world. With so much information digitized every day and the internet accessible to everyone around the world, students increasingly rely on electronic sources of information rather than physical libraries for their needs. The teaching methodology has also undergone a major change with the use of images, animations, videos, presentations, and online learning to complement traditional techniques.
Application of information technology - Administration :
The concept of electronic management is one of the latest applications of Information Technology, so it is changing the lives of millions of people around the globe. Computerization of Government activities makes it easier to supervise and audit, and at the same time make administrative work better meet the needs of society. It is also a bridge between the Government and the people. Technologies such as touchscreen kiosks help disseminate information about land records, photo IDs, pending invoices, etc. and allow even illiterate people to make bright decisions. more smoothly.
Application of information technology - Medicine :
Information technology plays an important role in medicine. For example, a scanner takes a series of images of the body using axial computed tomography (CAT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Then, a computer combines the images to create detailed holograms of the organs in the body. Additionally, the MRI produces images that show chemical changes in the body and blood flow. Most life-critical devices are programmed to respond to changes in a patient's condition within seconds, thereby reducing response time and the risk of human error. Newer concepts such as robotic surgery allow specialists to perform surgery from remote locations. Genome research relies heavily on the supercomputer's power to develop technologies for the future.
Application of information technology - Entertainment :
IT has changed the lifestyles of most people. The convergence of different technologies has created a variety of entertainment options such as games, music and video streaming, digital TV shows, satellite radio, cartoons, etc. can be access with the help of cell phone, PDA, laptop or on TV with cable or wireless connection using next generation WiFi, CDMA or GPRS technology.
Information technology plays an important role in most of our daily activities. Rarely is someone unaffected by IT. With each passing day, newer IT applications are being developed to increase our interaction and dependence on IT-enabled devices. Therefore, understanding this technology and using it creatively is essential to human progress.